11 Useful Bunkai For The Kusanku Ninja Move

By Jesse | 27 Comments

When people don’t understand things, they often find it easier to create their own explanations rather than to actually find out the real explanation. We see this all the time, in every part of society.

To psychologists, this behaviour is known as rationalization.

If something doesn’t make sense, make it make sense.

Karate is no exception.

And kata is a great example.

Out of all the unexplainable and unusual movements you’ll find in Karate, perhaps the king of all is the crouching position we find in the kata Kusanku (Kanku/Kosokun/Kushanku etc).

I’m talking about this move:

But what is the meaning of this movement? Why on earth would anybody need to crouch down like this in a self-defense situation? We all know that the ground is the last place you’d want to be on!

It makes no sense.

And that is the exact reasoning that has led some people to come up with very interesting explanations for this move right here. With the most common (and amusing) one being:

“It’s for fighting in the night!”


This move is apparently intended for being used when you are surrounded by ferocious samurai warriors, fighting your way through a horde of ninjas on the moonlit rice fields of Okinawa.

Don’t believe me?

A quick Google search gives me several sources that cite this exact move as being an exceptionally clever technique for fighting in the darkness of the night.

Actually, let me quickly quote some parts from one certain article, written by a man who even calls himself a “Karate historian” (!):

Kusanku kata has traditionally been called the “night fighting kata.” It is obvious that Kusanku kata does contain techniques well-adapted to fighting at night.

While the inclusion of these techniques might be purely a coincidence, I believe it is doubtful the kata is also coincidentally called the “night fighting kata.” There is the fact that many of the techniques in Kusanku are well-suited, if not specifically designed, for fighting at night. Luckily, the basics of night fighting are all included in Kusanku kata.

Kanku also includes the remnants of the most obvious night fighting technique, dropping to the ground after the crescent kick. Many consider this move, which vaguely looks like the stretched out starting position of a sprinter, to be completely useless. Obviously such individuals have limited experience fighting at night. This technique also allows one to disappear into the darkness while simultaneously locating opponents.

Even on the darkest night, the sky is lighter than the ground. By dropping low to the ground, opponents are silhouetted against the sky. Not only does this allow one to locate opponents by viewing the sky, it also effectively allows one to disappear into the darkness.

By watching the silhouette, it is possible to determine when the attack is coming.

Kusanku contains many techniques that are essential for fighting at night. While many have recently dismissed the “night fighting kata” as pure myth, the techniques themselves reveal the truth.

Okay, hold on, that’s enough Mr. Karate historian!

So, what this article basically says, is that we are dropping down to the ground in the middle of a fight, so that we can hide from our enemies (apparently they are numerous!), while locating them through searching for their silhouettes against the sky?

Like this?

"Don't move! You have ninja assassins all around you!"

And the crazy thing is, I’ve both read and heard this many times before!

Mr. Karate historian is not alone!

Now, I don’t know what you think, but I think this myth is similar to the naive belief that Karate was a system developed by peasants in the “cover of nightfall” during Okinawa’s old Ryukyu Kingdom in order to overcome the despotic Satsuma Samurai occupying their island!

Of course, no one is suggesting that such a thing is beyond the capabilities of farmers (as similar history elsewhere has been written in blood) but it’s simply not the case here!

Okinawa was in no position to offer resistance when the Satsuma samurai invaded, and their reign remained unchallenged in the Ryukyu Kingdom until the island finally fell under the jurisdiction of the Meiji government and ultimately became an independent prefecture called Okinawa-ken (Okinawa Prefecture),which remains to this day.

Still, we continue to hear myths such as “the high kicks of Shotokan’s Gankaku kata are designed for kicking a samurai in the throat, while he is sitting on his horse, through the small opening under his helmet” or “these last backward jumps from Shotokan’s Chinte is for when your hands and feet have been tied together by ninjas, and you need to jump to freedom through the rice paddy.”

I’m not making these up.

There are actually people who believe these stories!

And I have about a dozen more examples – including fighting when carrying a baby on the back (!), fighting on boats, rivers, in castle hallways and much more. What they all have in common (besides being funny) is that they effectively draw the attention away from the important fact that Karate is a pragmatic martial art designed for close quarter self defense, and instead focus on ridiculing the intelligence of every serious Karate practitioner.

See where I’m going?

So, this post is basically about showing that the “drop-down-and-hide-in-the-darkness-from-ninjas” move from Kusanku actually does have a few different practical martial applications if you just look for them!

And, acting as models, I have my loyal Karate slaves colleagues Jesper “The Ninja Hunter” and Oscar “The Samurai Executioner”:

"Sensing danger..."

Okay, enough photo editing, on with the good stuff:

Here’s 11 Useful Bunkai For The Kusanku Ninja Move (or whatever you call it).

1. Dropping Tai Otoshi

A simple throw.

Straighten the back leg to flip your opponent over, while pulling down to the ground. You can grip basically however you like, including the neck (kubi-nage).

2. Dropping Spinning Ashi Barai

A spinning low leg sweep.

You can go for one leg or both.

3. Ryo Ashi Dori

A normal double leg takedown. Nothing fancy. Grab the heels and push with your shoulder (using your legs).

4. Hiji Osae

This is a submission hold, popular in Aikido, where you press down on your opponents elbow with one hand and twist/bend his pinned hand towards his head. Very effective!

Keep you opponents hand above, or parallel to, shoulder level for maximum efficiency.

5. Sprawl

When your opponent reaches for your front leg, kick back, lower your hips and place your weight on top of your opponent. Bonus points if you knee him in the solar plexus at the same time!

6. Kneeling Kata Guruma

Classig wrestling throw.

And yes, the pictures are in a strange order, but I hope you get it anyway. On a side note, some people might find this technique far-fetched, and I might agree. But try it anyway!

7. Single Leg Takedown

Almost the same mechanics as when you do the double leg takedown (#3). Except you should be pressing against the knee with your shoulder, not your throat (!) like in the picture…

Am I the only one smelling a degradation around the corner?

8. Kesa Gatame Gyaku Dori

Okay, okay, before you say anything, I know this technique looks strange.

It is actually taken from Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (sic) a long time ago, so it definitely works though. It’s a shoulder/elbow lock that you do after having escaped from the reverse side control position (kesa gatame). The lock is applied when you lower your shoulders and straighten your neck.

Of course the actual kata doeesn’t feature all of the steps required to end up in the correct crouching position for this lock, but that’s not the point. And it’s a great move nontheless. Surprisingly painful!

9. Evil Face Crusher That I Couldn’t Make A Japanese Name For

Grab ears. Or hair. Smash face. Done.

10. Ushiro Ryo Ashi Dori

Just like when we did the takedown from the front, it works equally well from behind.

There’s some nasty follow-up techniques from this one!

11. Senaka Kudaki

And last but not least, when you feel utterly sadistic. The back breaker.

I mean, just look at that evil smile!

Works great if you catch a leg, spin around, then drop down.

So, that’s basically it.

Instead of making up (and believing) all of these fancy stories just because some techniques (or whole kata!) look unexplainable or unusual, try to sit down for a moment and think, and I bet you’ll come up with a lot more ideas than you believe you could.

Of course, some of it won’t work, but some of it will.

Discard the former, keep the latter!

And for those of you who can’t swallow fact, just keep eating fiction.

“Truth is stranger than fiction, because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; truth isn’t.”

- Mark Twain

About the author

is a self-titled Karate Nerd™, best-selling martial arts writer, unreasonably handsome elite athlete, autodidact, karatepreneur and carrot cake aficionado. He really thinks you should become a Karate Nerd™ too.


  1. Batman

    July 18, 2010 at 12:29 am

    Always wondered what the hell could possibly come from that move. I kinda fail at bunkai in a big way. Nicely done Jesse, thanks

  2. Fatih Ince

    July 18, 2010 at 6:22 am

    “Truth is stranger than fiction,because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; truth isn’t.” Doesn’t make sense…

    There is something wrong in the sentences. I guess “stranger” must be “stronger”…am I right bro?

    • Jesse

      July 18, 2010 at 11:58 am

      Nope, that’s how it is! It’s about the limitations of our minds :)

  3. Glyn Jones

    July 18, 2010 at 4:24 pm

    Another excellent posting Jesse. A great blog that always makes me smile!

  4. frederic Lecut

    July 18, 2010 at 8:59 pm

    Hi Jesse
    Great job. I had always wondered, and I was not convinced about the crouching in the grass… I like the dropping ashi barai the best as it would fit with the immediately preceding crescent kick. It is also a sweep used in several styles of Chinese martial arts. I also like the Tai Otoshi, and we know that Mr Kusanku was part of a Chinese legation to Okinawa.
    I’ll practice that one as well as the Tai Otoshi (one of my favorite Judo moves).
    There are just like for other kata several versions of Kusanku, and in our Yoshukai version, these 2 would seem the more likely.
    Thank you

  5. CrazyJoe

    July 19, 2010 at 3:21 pm

    Good job, Jesse-san!

  6. Andi

    July 20, 2010 at 12:19 am

    You definetely have a lot of fun studying Karate :O)

  7. frederic lecut

    July 20, 2010 at 6:18 pm

    Well, I gave it a try last night Jesse.
    In Yoshukai version of Kusanku, the opponent grabs your hand , you kick his hand away with the crescent kick, then you do the crazy jump.

    I believe the first option is the most likely one -- drop spinning ashi barai. I’m too old to be able to do this move fast enough now, but I would recommend it to some younger students.
    The Tai Otoshi is much easier for me. It would be done from a closer position.

    • Jesse

      July 21, 2010 at 12:14 am

      Nice Frederic! :)

  8. Drew Baye

    July 24, 2010 at 7:22 am

    It also looks like an effective “de-panting” movement.

  9. Francis

    August 2, 2010 at 6:07 pm

    Your article made me lagh a lot, you’re great! I just found something… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hsUai4wt6Yk&feature=related 2:32. Kallaripayatt

  10. Daniel

    September 10, 2010 at 11:51 am

    LOL! Thanks Jesse, this REALLY made me laugh! And thanks fot the useful applications!
    In Gichin Funakoshi 1925 book (I have the Italian edition -- the correct title might be Rentan Goshin Tode Jutsu?) it is stated that this move is applied when the contenders are both exhausted, and this crouching would aim to confuse the opponent pushing him to make the next move. What do you think about this statement that sound a bit odd to me?
    And why after crouching, in the Shorin Ryu Kushanku, do you have to look backwards?
    Thanks in advance!

    • Jesse

      September 10, 2010 at 3:34 pm

      Hi Daniel!

      Yes, I have read the same explanation from Funakoshi. He writes that you crouch down, pretending to be hurt, right? And when the opponent approaches from behind (to kick you in the head) you block it in a sitting position etc…

      I’m not sure that it would work as intended (ie why not simply attack the groin if you’re crouching and all?) but his explanation might have come from his teacher Itosu, who was the man responsible for codifying the Kusanku Dai/Sho to begin with, and therefore the bunkai might be a little “non-dangerous” (unrealistic) in order to facilitate Itosu’s goals of Karate in the schools system etc etc…

      None of the “older” Okinawan versions of (Chatan Yara) Kusanku have the same follow-up move that Shotokan and some Shorin-ryu groups use, so…

      Just some thoughts :)

  11. Szilard

    September 10, 2010 at 6:14 pm

    I like #11, it is a lot like the bunkai I learned originally. I always thought that is a stretch, it is not in the kata, but still I liked the bunkai itself. It went like this:
    Tori: ushiro geri, lets say left foot
    Uke: step up to the right side of Tori, ram your left hand under his kicking leg close to the groin, slap the right hand on his left shoulder and grab (so he can’t turn), lift with left arm and hip, kick out the supporting leg if he does not fall. At this point he either rotates by itself in the air, or you can flip him to his back.
    If you want to spend 20 years in prison you do this move from the kata accelerating his fall and he lands on your knee breaking his spine.
    Alternatively you can land him on the ground. If you can manage to flip him back 90 degree you can kneel on his side from behind, arriving into a real advantageous fighting position. But you can practice this later version only with people who know how to fall or you risk breaking their arm when you flip them back.

  12. Andreas Quast

    September 10, 2010 at 7:37 pm

    Gichin Funakoshi 1925 book Rentan Goshin Tode Jutsu:
    The reason for going down may not be that both combatants are exhausted, but that the (left) hand is caught in the technique before. In the technique before, Funakoshi says (P. 176):
    The meaning of this movement is to chop down with the left hand upon the pulled-up knee.

    In the description of the following scene (P. 177) which is the movement in question, he states:
    If the (left) hand is stuck and can’t be released, as the following tactic one pretends to be anxious and intentionally collapses. This serves to perplex the enemy.

    However, the part stating “???????????????” has some weird expressions and old Kani. It may also be written as:
    “?????????????”, which changes the meaning to:
    If the (left) hand is stuck and can’t be released, as the following tactic one holds on (to the adversaries hand) and intentionally collapses. This serves to perplex the enemy.

    So maybe technique #1 was an attempt to release the left hand from a wrist hold.
    Technique #2 supposes, that the releasing of technique #1 wasn’t succesful, thus another attempt is started. Continuous techniques.

    This may correspond to Chatan Yara Kushanku, where you kick against your left hand before turning and going down.

    Assumed, your partner grips your left wrist with his left hand (cross-over). You try to release the grip by punching it against your knee (or with your knee against the hand).
    If this doesn’t work, grasp his hand and step through under the connected hands with your right leg, and place the right foot in front your adversary (on his right side). While you start turning and going down, place your right hand on his left elbow (or use your shoulder), and thus twirl him around in a Kansetsu type of waza. Let him fall over your right leg, which is stretched out under him, bring him downwards to the ground, and pin him.

    Now look over your shoulder in order to see if the spectators value your technique. too.

    One may also perform the release kick and swing the right leg over the connected hands and downwards.

    • Andreas Quast

      September 10, 2010 at 7:38 pm

      Oh, it scrambled my Kanji and Kana, sorry.

      • Jesse

        September 10, 2010 at 10:05 pm

        Thanks Andreas, nice work! Interesting! :)

  13. hans

    January 4, 2011 at 2:00 pm

    The movement resembles somewhat the sword ducking move from wadoryu’s tachidori. On Youtube there are demonstrations of the Ohtsuku family Hironori (I) (the founder of wadoryu and his son)doing these much commented knive and sword defences…

  14. Matt

    January 4, 2011 at 10:22 pm

    Great post, thank you. I’ve always used this technique as a sprawl defense, which I was very happy to see you include here. The great thing about how the movement is designed is that if you engage your opponent sooner (which is usually desirable) it can be transformed into a knee strike as he begins his shoot attempt (which you touched on in the article).

    These built in timing differences and redundancies is what makes movement in kata worth preserving and exploring.

  15. Noah L

    January 4, 2011 at 10:43 pm

    Interesting and practical takes on the bunkai! The way I saw it done in Shuri-Ryu was the crescent kick was not so much a kick, but a jump--you jumped onto your opponent and dragged them to the ground where you applied the wrist lock or an elbow lock with their elbow braced on your raised knee.

  16. Kevin

    April 19, 2011 at 6:06 pm

    I was taught some whopper of explanations including the dropping to the ground in Kusanku. However, after I recieved Shodan, I was pulled aside and told that those explanations were to hide the real meaning of karate from the unworthy. My training then changed and I was shown the real meaning of things.

  17. warrioress

    August 11, 2011 at 3:13 am

    That last picture REALLY made me laugh! I’ll be trying some of those bunkai on my best mate (who is a fellow karateka. If she can’t handle it it’s her problem not mine!)

  18. Blog Kindo

    March 10, 2012 at 10:59 am

    Your Articles always amazing jes…

  19. Dave Burnings

    April 25, 2012 at 5:45 pm

    Really appreciate you sharing this article. Fantastic.

  20. Sasha

    July 28, 2012 at 2:30 am

    This post is hilarious and very informative at the same time, thank you so much!

  21. Kevin

    October 23, 2012 at 10:54 am

    Not listed or mentioned here is the double ashi Barai. Using the crescent kick as a front foot sweep, then dropping and sweeping the rear foot as well. Bruce Lee used this in the duel with Han in “Enter the Dragon”. Watch and you’ll see it. Also the high jump spinning back kick after the crescent has been caught by the opponent landing on the hands, also the leg scissors takedown. And PS have hidden like this in knee high grass with the ability to come up quickly. scared the heck out of my buddy who was about to step on me.

  22. Bob

    March 6, 2014 at 4:58 am

    There is also always an even more basic exercise aspect to kata. As someone who has resumed karate at 59 years of age, after 2 hip replacements, and a 30 year hiatus, just getting down and up in Kusanku is a real challenge. So being able to do this move requires (and develops) strength and flexibility that is applicable to any fighting situation. The bunkai possibilities are very interesting, especially to me the tai otoshi connection. I studied jiu-jitsu briefly before karate. There is a possible tai otoshi in Tensho as well. In my current school, we recognize another single leg takedown in Kusanku in the kneeling elbow strikes — if the hand grabs the leg and elbow presses the knee. So perhaps there is a lot of “ground attack” built into kusanku. Interesting stuff.

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